Welding Glossary C

Cable Referred to as a current carrying welding cable, either covered welding cable or a hose and cable assembly to carry current and gas or cooling water.Welding cables carry the welding current from the front of the machine to the torch and complete the circuit back to the machine through the work lead cable.
Cap pass Same as cover pass.
Capacitor A component in electrical circuits used to store an electrical charge.
Capillary action The property of a liquid to move into small spaces if it has the ability to ãwetä these surfaces.
Carbon An element which, when combined with iron, forms various kinds of steel.In steel, it is the changing carbon content which changes the physical properties of the steel.Carbon is also used in a solid form as an electrode for arc welding.
Carbon dioxide A gas used as a shielding gas in welding.CO2 is often used when welding carbon steel with MIG (GMAW).
Carbon steel A steel made by adding small, controlled amounts of carbon to pure iron.
Carrying a pool The process of creating a pool of molten base metal and carrying it along the weld line.
Case hardening Adding carbon to the surface of a mild steel object and heat treating to produce a hard surface.
Castings Metallic forms which are produced by pouring molten metal into a shaped container or mold.
Cathode An electrical term for a negative terminal.
Celsius The temperature scale used in the metric system where zero represents the freezing point of water and 100 is the boiling point, at sea level. Celsius was the name of the Swede who invented the centigrade system.
Chain intermittent welding Intermittent welding on two sides of a joint arranged so that the welds on the two sides are opposite each other.
Check valve A valve designed to allow a gas or fluid to flow in only one direction, used to prevent the reverse flow of gases through the torch, hoses, and/or regulators.
Chemical composition A list of different metals or elements that are combined to produce a certain metal or alloy.
Chemical corrosion The eating away of a metal surface as a result of chemical reaction.
Chemical properties Properties that determine how a material will withstand the effects of the environment.
Chipping The process of cleaning slag from a weld bead by striking it with a chipping hammer.
Chipping goggles Eye protection worn while chipping slag from a weld bead.
Chipping hammer A cleaning tool with a sharp pointed pick at one end of its head, used to remove slag from weld beads.
Circuit The path of electron flow from the source through various components and back to the source.
Circuit breaker A device designed to shut off the flow of current in a circuit if the amperage becomes too high.
Cladding The process used to apply surfacing materials that will improve the abrasion, corrosion or heat resistance of a part.
Clearance The gap or space between adjoining or mating surfaces.
Clockwise Circular torch rotation to the right, when facing the object; in the same direction as movement of a clocks hands.
Closed arc An arc enclosed by the heavy covering material on a SMAW electrode.
coalescence The growing together or growth into one body of the base metal parts.
Coarse amperage control One of several ranges that provide electrical current output on a welding machine.Coarse amperage ranges usually extend over 50 amps or more.
Coated electrode Metal rod used in arc welding which has a covering of materials to aid in the arc welding process.
Coating A relatively thin layer of material applied to a surface to prevent corrosion, abrasion, or temperature scaling.
Code A written system of figures, symbols, rules, regulations, and procedures used to regulate the welding industry.
Cold welding A process for fusing metal parts by using high pressure.No outside heat is applied.
Collet A slotted, cylindrical device used to hold and clamp the electrode in a torch to assure electrical contact with the power supply.Collets are typically used in TIG (GTAW) torches.
Collet body The part of the TIG (GTAW) torch that accepts and houses the collet/electrode.The collet body also acts as a gas distributor and frequently holds the ceramic shielding gas nozzle.
Combustible A material or vapor capable of being easily ignited; flammable.
Complete fusion Weld fusion that has taken place over all the fusion faces and between all adjoining weld beads.
Complete joint penetration Joint penetration which extends completely through the joint.
Compressive strength The greatest stress developed in a material under compression.
Concave root surface A root surface which is concave, or which curves inward toward the root of the weld.
Concave fillet weld A fillet weld having a concave face.
Concave weld face A weld having the center of its face below the weld edges.An indented weld bead.
Continuous weld Making the complete weld in one operation.
Constant Current (CC) Welding Machine The term used for arc welding machines that produce a nearly constant current even though the arc gap voltage may vary. Referred to as ãdroopersä these types of machines have a limited maximum short circuit current and a negative volt-amp curve. Voltage changes with different arc lengths, however the current only changes slightly.
Constant potential An alternate term for Constant Voltage.
Constant Voltage (CV) Constant Potential (CP) Welding Machine The term used for arc welding machines that produce a nearly constant voltage even when the current changes.A typical MIG (GMAW) machine is a constant voltage machine.
Constant-Speed Wire Feeder


Constricting Reducing in size or diameter, as in a constricting orifice of a plasma cutting tip.
Consumable electrode An electrode that is melted and becomes part of the weld.MIG (GMAW) welding wire and stick electrodes are consumable electrodes.
Contact tube A device that transfers welding current to a continually fed electrode.This device is typically part of a MIG (GMAW) gun lead connection at the wire feeder.
Contactor switch A switch on a welding machine, typically used in TIG (GTAW), that allows the welder to choose whether current, shielding gas, and water flow can be controlled remotely with either a foot pedal or torch mounted thumb switch while welding.
Contamination An undesirable substance in or around a weld.Contamination can cause weld defects and a loss of weld integrity.
Continuous weld Completing the weld in one operation, without stopping.
Contour The shape of the face of the weld.
Contraction The shortening of metal, usually upon cooling.
Controller An electronic device (usually a computer) with a memory that can be programmed to signal automatic equipment when and where to move.
Convex fillet weld A fillet weld having a convex face, which curves outward, away from the root of the weld.
Corner flange weld A flange weld with only one member flanged at the location of welding.
Corner joint The junction formed by edges of two pieces of metal touching each other at an angle of about 90 degrees.
Corrosion Chemical and electrochemical reaction of a metal with its surroundings, causing the metal to deteriorate.
Corrosion resistance The ability of a material to withstand corrosive attack.
Counterclockwise Rotation to the left, when facing the object being rotated; in the direction opposite movement of a clockâs hands.
Coupons Specimens cut from the weld assembly for testing weld integrity.
Cover pass The final pass that forms the face of the weld.
Cover plates Replaceable pieces of clear glass or plastic used to protect the more costly filter lenses or plates of welding goggles and helmets.
Covered electrode In arc welding, a consumable electrode comprised of a metal rod with a covering of materials, called fluxes, that aid in the welding process.The metal rod is made of a material or alloy that is compatible with the base metal.
Crack A break or separation in rigid material, such as weld metal, that runs in more or less one direction.
Crater A depression in the face of a weld, usually at the end of an arc weld.
Creating a continuous weld pool Creating a pool with molten base metal and moving it along a line, maintaining a consistent width.
Crescent-shaped motion A curved side-to-side motion of the welding torch or electrode holder while, at the same time, moving forward.This creates a wider bead.
Crown The curve or convex surface of a weld proper.
Cup Refers to a gas cup, see nozzle.
Current Also referred to as amperage, it is the amount of electricity flowing per second, past a particular point in a conductor.
C-shaped weld pool A crescent-shaped weld pool which indicates that the base metal surfaces have melted enough to create a well-fused weld.
Current switch A switch on the face of a welding machine, typically used for TIG (GTAW), that allows the welder to choose whether current can be adjusted with a foot pedal or torch mounted current control while welding.
Cutting machine A motor-driven device with one or more cutting torches mounted on it, used to make complex, long, or multiple cuts.
Cutting tip That replaceable part of a plasma cutting torch that constricts the arc and directs the plasma onto the workpiece.
CV See constant voltage.
Cycle A set of events that repeat in a specific order; such as one complete reversal of alternating current.
Cylinder A portable metallic container for storage and transmission of compressed welding gases.
Cylinder pressure gauge A gauge on a pressure regulator that shows pressure of the gas in the cylinder.
Cylinder valve A device that can be opened or closed to control the flow of gas from a cylinder.